With rapid development of the Internet of Things industry, platforms giants as Alibaba, Google, Tencent, and commercialization of a large number of LoRa applications worldwide have made LoRa one of the mainstream Internet standards.
LoRa is a physical layer or wireless modulation that creates long-distance communication connections. LoRa technology based on CSS modulation technology can greatly increase communication range compared with traditional FSK technology, and CSS technology has been widely used by military and space communication stations for decades. With long transmission distance and strong anti-interference, LoRa is the first low-cost business case of this technology.
Briefly, a single gateway or base station can cover the entire city or a range of hundreds of square kilometers, depending on the environment and interference of the location used. But LoRa and LoRaWAN have better performance than other standard communication technologies. The link budget, which is usually expressed in db, is a key factor in determining transmission scope of specified environment.
A technology won't be a big hit, especially in the Internet of Things. WiFi and BTLE are widely adopted standard, each with its own functions, performing well in their application scenarios.. Mobile communication is especially suitable for high-speed data supply equipment. LPWAN is more suitable for transmitting low-frequency, small-quantity, long-distance data by providing batteries that have been working for several years.
LoRaWAN develops communication protocols and system architectures for LPWAN networks, while LoRa physical layer is responsible for long-distance communication connections. Communication protocols and network architectures have a significant impact on node battery life, network capabilities, quality of service, security, and application diversity.
Network Architecture: LoRa uses star structure to achieve long-distance connection stability andensure node battery life.
LoRa adopts Aloha method for communication, and only synchronize data to network when the node has data to send.
Gateway needs strong information-receiving capabilities to meet the requirements of a large number of nodes. Gateways often use multiple simultaneous transmit and receive transmitters to meet the requirements of a star network structure.
LoRaWAN classifies the devices used to adapt to different application scenarios. Different device categories need to balance downlink communication delay and battery life.
LoRaWAN uses two-layer security model: one for network security and the other for application security. Network security is to ensure the authentication of nodes in the network, while application security focuses on protecting user application data, which uses AES encryption algorithm.
LoRaWAN has a cost advantage over existing systems, both in deployment and technical requirements.